Lorena MemushajAldent University, Albania
Title: Diabetes - case study, clinical definition, risk factors, medical treatment and nutritional considerations
Diabetes mellitus is "a group of metabolic diseases with hyperglycemia that are caused by abnormalities in insulin production, action, or both. The methodology of this paper is based on a case study, with the aim of obtaining data on the health status of a patient suffering from Diabetes Mellitus. Information such as patient diagnosis, anthropometric data, laboratory test findings, medications, prescription collection were obtained from the medical chart. Data such as personal data, 24-hour food recall, eating behaviors, food preferences, and factors influencing food intake were collected during the interview through the use of nutrition assessment forms. Mr. E.M. is a man at the age of 56, who has been diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes and stage 1 hypertension, confirmed by a specialist doctor. According to the interview conducted with the patient, the symptoms before the diagnosis were thirst and dry mouth, frequent and pronounced sweating at night, headache and prolonged dizziness for 3 days or so. The recommended therapy for type 2 diabetes was Glimepiride 1 mg and Metformin 500 mg, for stage 1 hypertension was Olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg and Atorvastatin 20 mg. Food intake and the patient's diet prescription were confirmed through consultation with the attending nutritionist-dietitian during the therapy period. Medical treatment and dietary guidelines helped normalize blood sugar levels from 170mg/dL to 125mg/dL, a decrease in weight from 92 kg to 87 in 6 months, reduction of blood pressure from 175/90 mmHg to 163/90 mmHg, a decrease in HbA1c values from 9.4% to 7.9% and the patient has also improvement of symptoms. Nutrition education is important in medical nutrition therapy to provide awareness of the patient's condition and to provide some strategies on how to improve health and nutritional status. Continuous monitoring is recommended to prevent the diseases.
Dr. Lorena Memushaj studied Food Chemistry at Faculty of Natural Sciences; Tirana University and graduated MS in 2010. She received her PhD degree in 2016 at the same institution. Experienced university lecturer in Food and Analytical Chemistry at the Department of Pharmacy; Faculty of Medical Sciences; Aldent University, Tiranë, Albania. Skilled in food technology, food microbiology and also quality and safety of food products.