Virtual Conference

Dzansel Bukovec

Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, North Macedonia

Title: Isolation and characterization of soil microorganisms Bacillus velezensis and Paenibacillus polymyxa against the pathogenic fungus Venturia inequalis


A significant issue in apple production is the scab disease caused by Venturia inaequalis. Chemical fungicides are necessary for disease management in organic farming, but unfortunately, they frequently result in inadequate control and phytotoxicity.The use of soil microbial antagonists can be an alternative to toxic fungicides in disease control. The pathogen fungus V. inaequalis was isolated from diseased tissues of the local variant of Malus domestica – “red delicious”. To isolate the soil antagonists, the dilution series was made from compost samples collected from the compost plant in Resen. The pour plate method is used to inoculate each of the dilutions into a nutrient agar (NA) plate. The isolates were chosen based on their antibacterial activity and the presence of a zone of inhibition toward other isolates on the Miller Hinton agar (MHA) plates. The Sanger sequencing method was used to determine the strains of Paennibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus velezensis. They were marked as Paenibacillus polymxa, strains AA/9, AA/11, AA/15 and five Bacillus velezensis, strains AA/1, AA/2-1, AA/2-2, AA/19-2 and AA/20. According to the radial growth inhibition zone in Miller Hinton broth and Sabouraud dextrose broth media, Paenibacillus polymxa, strains and  Bacillus velezensis, strains isolates' antagonistic behavior toward V. inaequalis was determined: 20, 20 23, 25, 25, 25 and 30 mm respectively. The results suggest that the tested bacterial isolates that showed significant antifungal activity against V. inaequalis can be an adequate alternative to the existing chemical fungicides.


Dzansel Bukovec has completed her Bachelor's studies at the age of 22 from Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, North Macedonia.  She has always been ambitious and interested in natural sciences. Starting in the second year of her bachelor's studies, she has been upgrading her research skills in "Basic ecological characteristics of the high mountain peatlands of Shar Mountain" under the mentorship of Prof. Dr. Slavco Hristovski. Starting in the third year of her bachelor's studies she has participated in the project  "Microgreens" under the mentorship of Prof. Dr. Oliver Tuszewski, and Prof. Dr. Sonja Gadžovska-Smić. In her final year, she was an internship trainee in the Department of Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology at PMF --Skopje. She has done her Bachelor's thesis in Bioengineering DOO, RCAMB  d-r Kungulovski, Skopje, North Macedonia.  Dzansel also has been an internship trainee in Alkaloid AD - Insitute of Research and Development - MSAT analytics. She has been the project manager financed by MES:  Young environmental support program "Dr. Ljupco Melovski" Isolation of Bacteria for Biological Control of Scab Disease (Venturia inaequalis) as an Alternative Replacement of Toxic Fungicides in Apple Production in the Prespa Region under the mentorship Prof. Dr. Dzoko Kungulovski.